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Surnames

This page contains two sections on surnames.
The first section is Ivan Krasovs'kyj's study of Lemko surnames and the second section is an alphabetical listing of all surnames
found in the villages of Gmina Cisna.

Surnames of the Galician Lemkos in the 18th Century


January 6, 2001

Dear Family and Friends,

I finally found the time to finish my translation of the introduction to Ivan Krasovs'kyj's "Surnames of the Galician Lemkos in the 18th Century." 

This labor of love is dedicated to the memory of our ancestors and to my dear father Ivan, who died just before Christmas Eve and taught me much of what I know about the old country.

Please excuse any typos or grammatical errors, since this is only a first draft. I would have also liked to put all of the village names in their present form with Polish spellings instead of the Ukrainian transcription forms, which appear in the book, but there was no time to look them all up, except for the few that I knew and included in parentheses.

Give me some feedback on what you think of it.

Happy New Year!  Sincerely, Stephan

Surnames of the Galician Lemkos in the 18th Century
by
Ivan Krasovs'kyj

Foreward 
from the Author (Krasovs'kyj)

Lemkos, the farthest western ethnic sub-group of the Ukrainian people, have inhabited both slopes of the western Carpathians since ancient times.

Notwithstanding the fact that the forefathers of today's Lemkos have been separated from the rest of the Ukrainian lands for centuries, they have preserved their native language and culture under complicated economic and national conditions.

Despite historical realities, reactionary academics have created theories about the Lemkos being Russified Poles due to Austrian Rule or former Walachians (Romanians), who colonized the Western Carpathians under Polish rule in the 15th - 17th centuries and became "Ruthenian." On the other hand, relying on the fact that the Lemkos have preserved the ancient name for themselves as a Rusyn, a Rusnak and Ruthenian (rus'skyj), certain Ukrainian social-educational activists in the 2nd half of the 19th century, known as the Old Ruthenian (starorusyny) group (also referred to as Russophiles) came up with the theory that the Lemkos do not belong to the Ukrainian people, but form a separate Rusyn nationality branch of the Eastern Slavs.

In the late 1970's, while doing research on my native village of Doshno, in the San region, using a copy of the Josephine Metryka in the Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine in L'viv, my associates and I (at the urging of Prof. Julian K. Red'ko) came up with the idea of reviewing the records (metryky) of all of the villages on the northern slopes of the Carpathians and then publishing a "Dictionary of Surnames of Galician Lemkos in the 18th Century."

To bring this about, we wanted to accomplish our goal by studying historical sources that bore witness to the national origin of the Lemkos and to prove or disprove the "Walachian colonization" theory. We also wanted to leave for posterity the systematic data we collected about the population that lived in the Western Carpathians at the end of the 18th century.

As a result of our work, which took several years and required detailed analysis of over 300 volumes of archival documents, we completed our compilation of the "Surname Dictionary." In the midst of our labor, we decided to present the surnames in an alphabetical list and to highlight the main ways in which they were formed.

In the process of compiling this dictionary, individual professionals willingly provided the author with their qualified assistance and valuable advice. I especially want to make note of the sensible help given by Pavlo P. Chuchka (Doctor of Philological Sciences and Professor at Uzhhorod State University) and the advice of Professor Doctor J. K. Red'ko.

My special thanks go to these individuals.

Introduction

Contemporary historical science widely uses individual first names of persons, surnames, and other identifying names in order to more accurately answer questions about the origins of nationalities and nations, and about the creation and development of ethnic groups. In this way, one sheds more light on the problems of ethno-genesis. Analysis of personal names and the study of their development allows for a more basic study of the social composition of a given population group (lyudnist) in the past, and the intensity and the migration routes of a population (naselennya).

The first researchers of Ukrainian surnames were A. Stepovych (Notes on the origin of Little Russian Surnames - in Russian 1882, Voronezh) and M. Sumtsov (Little Russian Surname Appellations - in Russian 1885, Kiev). The work of V. Okhrymovych (Findings to recognize national customs and legal views - in Ukrainian 1895), studied the surnames of some individual Carpathian villages. The first person to study historical material of place names (onomastyka) was Ivan Franko (Reasons for Ukrainian Onomastics - in Ukrainian, L'viv 1906). Franko underlined the fact that individual names are important as material not only for the philologist-linguist, but also for the ethnographer and historian. Franko added that an important source for research into names could be the church records (metryky), even though these record books were not kept regularly in each parish and that a large part of these church record books have been lost in fires and as a result of wars.

Researchers on the surnames of Galician villagers in the 18th and 19th centuries have not yet devoted much attention to the important source document - the Land Kadaster (Pozemel'nyy Kadastr) of 1819-1820 (also called the "Franciscan Metryka" (Frantsyskans'ka metryka).)

Since the end of WW-II, questions related to the surnames of the Ukrainian population of the Carpathian region have been studied by the following Ukrainian academic researchers L.L. Humets'ka (Kiev 1958), A.M. Zales'kyj (Kiev 1964), R. Y. Kersta (Kiev - 1984), Yu. K. Red'ko (Kiev - 1966), M.L. Khudash (Kiev - 1977) and P.P. Chuchka, Kiev - 1985) and by the foreign academics J. Riegier (in Polish - Wroclaw 1977) and E. Wolnicz-Pawlowska (in Polish- Gdan'sk 1978). The work of Wolnicz-Pawlowska in regards to Ukrainian surnames in the former Ruthenian Province (Ruskie Wojewodstwo) contains a thorough analysis of the Ukrainian surnames of villagers in 14 villages of the Sanok region within a defined period of time. Indeed, Lemko surnames have not yet become the subject of any special monograph research project, although their study helps to draw a line of answers to questions about the Lemkos' past.

Among the ethnographic groupings of Ukrainians, the Lemkos remained the least studied up until WW-II. Since the middle of the 14th century, Lemkos have lived outside the borders of Ukraine. Despite being surrounded by foreign powers and the age-old desires of Poland, Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia to assimilate the Carpathian Ruthenians, economic and nationalistic oppression did not break the spirit of the handful of Ruthenians lost in the faraway mountains. The Lemkos saved themselves from denationalization and created new examples of material and spiritual culture. These riches, which nature itself has preserved are treasures, which belong not only to Ukrainian culture but to all of the Eastern Slavic cultures. It is clear that the basis of Lemko culture is general Ukrainian culture. In language, thanks to its geographic isolation, the population of the western Carpathians preserved many ancient Rus' archaisms. A mass of historical, linguistic-literary and cultural factors help to characterize the Lemkos as a part of the Ukrainian people. (interesting footnote: by the early 1990's, the number of Lemkos in the world was estimated to be at about one million with 200,000 living in the Transcarpathian Oblast of Ukraine, with 250,000 who were moved from Poland to the L'viv, Tarnopil', and Ivano-Frankivsk oblasts of Ukaine after WW-II, 100,000 remaining in Poland (after Akcija Vistula), 120,000 in Slovakia, 60,000 in Yugoslavia, and 200,000 in the U.S. and Canada.)

The lack of written sources up until the middle of the 15th century makes it difficult to study the history of the western Carpathians from ancient times until the 15th and 16th centuries. The "Russian Primary Chronicle" (Povist' vremennydkh lit), the "Galician-Volhynian Chronicle" (Halytsko-Volyns'kyj Litopys), and archeological finds give scant information about the history of this region. From the 15th century, royal circulars, privileges, charters, court records and protocols exist. A valuable source of history for the Lemkos is the "Acts of the village of Odrekhova" (Akty sela Odrekhovy). It is the only well known set of acts of a self-governing village between the 15th and 19th centuries, which was written in the Ukrainian language in use at that time. Another quite credible source with which to study the history of the Lemkos and their social-economic positions are the Sanok Court books from the 16th to 18th centuries, the court book of the village of Vara 15th thru 17th centuries, the court book of the Klymkivka circular 17th thru 18th centuries, and the Josephine and Franciscan Land Kadasters (metryky).

There is also a number of documents for the 16th to 18th centuries (illustrations and descriptions of land holdings) published in the "Sources for the study of the history of Rus'-Ukraine" (Zherela dlya istorii Ukrainy-Rusi). An important publication of general state documents, royal privileges and decrees, courtroom records, and rulings of the Sanok legislature (sejmek) and other similar documents from the 15th to 18th century can be found in the "Akta grodskie i ziemskie" (in Polish - City and Land Acts). Material on the granting of privileges to villages of the Carpathian region (Prykarpattia) can be found in the "Zro'dla Dziejowy" (in Polish - Historical Sources).

Among the printed sources, the "Shematyzmy" (of the Greek Catholic Apostolic Administration of Lemkivshchyna - L'viv 1936) contains short historical accounts about the villages and information pertaining to economic, educational, and cultural activities. The works of D. Zubryts'kyj (History of the Galician Principality, L'viv 1861-1863-with the borders between the Ruthenian and Polish peoples from Galicia), M. Krynyts'kyj ( in Russian - Historical Content of the Mushyna area, Vienna 1853) are dedicated to the problems of the history and culture of the Lemkos, as is the work of O. Toronskyj (Ruthenian-Lemkos, in Russian, 1860, L'viv). It is also worth mentioning the works of the Polish researchers A. Fastnacht (Settlements in the Sanok lands (Osadnictwo ziemi Sanockiej w lata) 1340-1650, in Polish, 1962 - Wroclaw), the historical-ethnographic works of R. Reinfuss (Ethnographic borders of Lemkivshchyna (Etngraficzne granice Lemkowszczyzny "ziemia"), 1936 - Krakow) and J. Czajkowski (Historical and ethnic basis forming the ethnographic groups in the southern part of the Rzeszow Wojewodstwo, 1969 - Sanok).

Ancient sources, especially archeological finds prove that the northern slopes of the western Carpathians were settled only in the valleys of the San river and its tributaries the Vysloka, Ropa, and Dunayets' rivers. Without a doubt, these valleys were settled by Ruthenians - the descendents of the White Croats. The arrival of Ruthenians into the western Carpathians at the end of the 11th century was also clear with the building of Sanok on the San river as a defensive and administrative center in the western part of Rus'. Sanok is first mentioned in about 1150, when, according to the Ipatiivs'kyj Chronicle, it was occupied by King Geiza (S note: of Hungary).

The Polish researcher Dr. Fastnacht maintains that Sanok could not have been an isolated settlement and that, by established custom, nearby Ruthenian settlements were founded on the basis of Ruthenian Law (na Rus'komu pravi): Terepcha, Mezhybrid, Dubrivka Rus'ka, Zabolotsi, Ulyuch (first called Ulych), Lodyna, Hlomcha (Hlomcza), Tyriava Sil'na, Vil'khivtsi, Stotrozhi Velyki, Storozhi Mali, Kostarivtsi, Syanichok, Polovtsi, Chertezh, Prusyk and others. Of course, the first documented mention of these villages appears at a later date between the 14th and 15th centuries (interesting footnote: Terpcha - 1339, Vil'khivtsi and Syanichok - 1424, Dubrivka Rus'ka - 1426, Polovtsi - 1429, Chertezh - 1439. These are the years when privileges were granted to these villages).

Ruthenian settlements did not only center on Sanok and its tributaries, but also existed farther to the west in the Vysloka valley, along the Jaselka and in the direction of the Dukla and Jaslo mountain passes, along the communication routes and streams. One should mention the fact that the villages of Bos'ko and Doshno were among the oldest settlements founded on the basis of Ruthenian Law.

The remains of ancient ruins near Tyriava Sil'na, Terepcha, Voltushova, Vyslok Velykyj, Zahir'ya (Zagorz), Kulyashne, Lupkiv (Lupkow), Daliova and others are evidence of the existence of the boundaries of Ruthenian settlements. Because of this, we think that the assertions of the present-day Polish historians and ethnographers to be incorrect: namely, that up until the end of the 13th century the population living on the territory of latter-day Lemkivshchyna "was exclusively Polish."

After the fall of Kievan Rus', a portion of the Carpathian (Prykarpattia) and Trans-Carpathian (Zakarpattia) regions remained within the borders of the Galician Principality. Prince Yuriy (1301-1308) joined the territory of the entire latter-day Lemko lands to that of the territory of the Galician-Volynian Principality. This move sped up the process of economically and culturally developing the Carpathian region (Karpatskij Kraj).

The state of ancient Rus', to which a large portion of the territory of latter-day Lemkivshchyna belonged, influenced the growth and composition of the population of the western Carpathians. This fact was indeed also admitted by Fastnacht, who maintained that up until 1340, not less than one third of the villages already existed that were later known from the 15th and 16th centuries.

In the middle of the 14th century, Volynia, Halychyna (Eastern Galicia), and Lemkivshchyna were siezed and taken over by Poland. The lands of the Sanok region then became a part of the Ruthenian province (Ruskie Wojewodstwo) and are subsequently always referred to in official documents as "the Ruthenian land" (terra Rusiae). This fact also points to the ethnic composition of the population of the Carpathian region (kraj).

The Polish kings and noblemen then began a new long-lasting colonization effort aimed at Polonizing the population living in the Carpathians. On this point the Polish historian F. A. Osendowski wrote: "in the year 1340 king Kazimir joined the Galician lands and the Carpathians to Poland. He worried about the colonization of the Carpathian lands by his faithful knights -- Poles, Germans, Czechs, who step by step polonized the foreigners." (Karpaty I Podkarpacie, Poznan, 1930)

After rechartering the towns under Magdeburg law (German law), Polish authorities then forbade Ruthenians from settling in the towns of the Carpathian region (Sanok, Jaslyska, Biecz, Muszyna.) The city council of Jaslyska even brought out a special regulation stating "it is forbidden for Ruthenians and people of the Greek Faith from settling in the city."

Polish colonization first caught on in the towns and lowlands of the Northern Carpathians. Poles did not willingly like to settle in the highlands. In order to finally "make the Carpathians our own", the Polish kings granted the larger portion of these lands to the Polish nobility with the right to establish new settlements on the basis of German law, and also on the basis of Walachian law. Villages that already existed in these lands were also granted to the noblemen. For example, in 1373 King Wladyslaw granted the village of Jablonica (Ruska) on the San river to the nobleman Pszemyslaw. In the years 1386-1389 the king granted to Zyndram from Maszkowicz both the town of Jaslyska and the villages at the upper reaches of the the Morawa river above the village of Doszno. Also in 1389 a new village called Korolykova (latter known as Korolyk Polski) was founded there on the basis of German law.

The Roman Catholic Church also received royal grants. The Polish Catholic Church was to play a leading role in the political plans for the polonization of the Ukrainian population of the Carpathians. Queen Elzhbeta in 1384 granted to the Latin Bishop of Przemysl the villages of Rivne, Tserhova, Bereziv, and Domaradz. In 1434, King Jagailo also granted to this bishop the town of Jaslyska (which had reverted back to royal property) and the villages of Korolyk, Daliova, Biskuptsi and Nowa Jasionka. In the 14th century the kings granted the property of Muszyna domain (demesne = kljucz) to the bishop of Krakow.

Court and civic records and land registers began being kept in 1423. Only from this period do we have more concrete descriptions of Carpathian villages, which come from historical sources. By analyzing these records we see that in 1450 property within the Sanok lands was divided up into the following ownership categories: 73.7% of the land owned by Polish noblemen, 20.1% owned by the King, 5.8% owned by the Roman Catholic Church, and 0.4% owned by local councils.

Polish colonization of the Carpathians was also made up of German colonists, both in the eastern part as well as in the western part of latter-day Lemkivshchyna. This process began in 14th to 15th centuries. The Roman Catholic dioceses of Krakow and Przemysl actively participated in these colonizing efforts, with an aim toward polonizing the population, and weakening the influence of the Orthodox religion within the Polish kingdom.

In 1358 the town of Korosno (Krosno) obtains the status of German law. Soon thereafter, the surrounding Ruthenian villages of Novosil'tsi, Jablonica Ruska, Hrycewa Wola, Daliowa, Posada, Jaslyska and others also were rechartered under German law. German settlers soon arrive in Krosno and Rymanow.

As a result of this German colonization, new villages were founded: Hachiv, Kambornia, Iwonycz, Klymkivka. Part of the German colonists also settled in Sanok, where up until 1339 the majority of the town were Ruthenians. By the end of the 14th century, however, the majority of the Sanok townsmen were Poles or polonized Germans. German colonists also showed up in the villages which is attested to by the names which they gave to the villages they founded, such as Zarshyn (Zarszyn) from the words "sehr schoen" (very pretty) in the Sanok region, and in the Horlytsi (Gorlice) region - Shymbark (Szymbark) from the words "schoen Berg" (pretty mountain). German colonists from the town of "Hoerlitz" in Silesia also founded the town of Horlytsi (Gorlice) (see the Shematysm of Lemkivshchyna, Lviv, 1936). Within the Sanok region over 150 settled areas were rechartered on the basis of German law.

The gradual process of turning local villagers into serfs worsened their social standing. It was useful for the Polish landlords to completely settle the sub-Carpathian (prykarpatskyj) and Carpathian regions in order to obtain feudal work/service terms (corvee) and natural duty obligations. The nobility established new villages, granting its inhabitants "freedom" (volya - wola) (a set period of time free of feudal work requirement/obligations to the landlord) for a period of 24 years from the founding of the village.

Legal relationships thus changed between the local master (feudal lord) and his serf village inhabitants. Under these conditions, Ruthenian law was obsolete by not being responsive enough to the needs of the land owners. German (Magdeburg) law, however, regulated the legal relationships between townsmen, merchants and craftsmen. This is why even as far back as the 15th century a mass re-chartering of villages on the basis of the customs of Walachian law began in the sub-Carpathian and trans-Carpathian regions, which under alpine conditions better formalized the legal obligations of village inhabitants living in the Carpathian villages ( which were at first were Polish royal villages, but later became the property of noblemen) toward the interest of the nobility. At first Walachian law was introduced in the royal villages, but later it was also introduced in villages of the nobility. Two of the first villages founded on the new Walachian law were Odrekhova (Odrechowa) and Shavne (Szawne). In 1542 Bishop Tarlo transferred the village of Volya Nyzhnya (Wola Niznia) from German to Walachian law. In the Sanok region over 160 villages, which had previously been chartered on the basis of Ruthenian or German law, were transferred to the status of Walachian law during the 16th and 17th centuries. (according to Fastnacht).

New settlements were also founded on the basis of Walachian law. The conditions for founding a new village depended on the natural growth of the local population, the arrival of emigrant-settlers (usually Ruthenians from the Transcarpathian region (in the southeast), and the state-sponsored colonization of the Carpathians by Poles and Germans. In the 16th century, families from the Ukrainian population of Eastern Galicia (Halychyna) and farther areas of Rus' arrived in the Carpathian highlands as a result of the Turkish and Tartar attacks upon Rus' at the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries. Noblemen also settled a few Belarusians arriving in the mountains from beyond the Pripiat marshes. (note according to Osendowski: in fact the Belarusians from the northern part of the Rivne oblast have much in common culturally and materially with the Lemkos.)

These new settlers also took over formerly inhabited villages, which had been depopulated as a result of various epidemics. For example, the following was written about the village of Mocharne (Moczarne) in 1622 "People died as a result of winds that were sent by God. Those who remained were wiped out by Hungarians and brigands." In order to repopulate Mocharne, Ruthenians from Transcarpathia were subsequently brought in.

As a rule, new villages founded on the basis of Walachian law sprung up along side neighboring villages that had already been in existence. In 1470 the villages of Voltushova (Woltuszowa), Balutianka and Volya Klymkivska (Vil'ka) (Wola Klymkowka - Wilka) were founded on the basis of Walachian law near the older village of Doshno (Doszno), which had formerly existed on the basis of Ruthenian law. One document for 1673 states that "cossacks and bailiffs" live in the village of Vil'ka. The village of Zavadka Rymanivska (Zawadka Rymanowska) was founded in about 1483 with a charter of privileges dating from 1487. In the first half of the 16th century the following villages were established on the basis of Walachian law: Komancha (Komancza) 1512, Moshchanets' (Moszczaniec) and Kamianka 1526, Lypovets' (Lipowiec) and Cheremkha (Czeremkha) 1527, and Poliany Surovychni 1549. In 1556 Ruthenian settlers form Transcarpathia founded the village of Volosate (Wolosate). A row of villages were founded in the second half of the 16th century such as Matiasheva Volya 1567, Tarnavka 1570, Pulavy 1572, Dushatyn 1578, Berezhnytsia Nyzhnia and Mychkiv 1580, Zavoji and Rudavka Rymanivska 1589.

The introduction of Walachian law, which better addressed the interests of the landlord, was obligatory for villagers. Villages under Walachian law existed side-by-side with villages under Ruthenian law. This fact is confirmed by civil documents form the 16th to 18th centuries from the village of Odrekhova (Odrechowa) in the Sanok region, which are known by the name of "Acts of the village of Odrekhova", Polish-German colonization continued pressure from the north and the west, attempting not only to slow down the spread of Ukrainian influence, but also to push out Ruthenians from the better lowland agricultural land into the mountains.

The efforts of the nobility and Latin clergy led to the forced introduction of the Catholic faith and the polonization of the population living in a row of Ruthenian villages in the Dyniw (Dynow) region. Only independent islands of the Ukrainian/Lemko population of this region survived until 1945.

A list of the most common surnames in Lemkivshchyna at the end of the 18th Century.

This Table contains the Surnames and the Number of Families with this name, out of a total of 1,707 surnames in the list.
Most Common Surnames in Lemkivshchyna
Number of Families with this name, out of a total of 1,707 in the list
Surname No. Surname No.
Koval'  (Kowal) 56 Marchak 20
Rusyn     49 Dziubak 19
Popovych 48 Dudka  19
Barna  51 Luchka   19
Tsap  (Cap)  44 Savka 19
Mel'nyk 40 Fil'    19
Khom'yak  (Chomiak) 37 Bodak 18
Shpak   (Spack or Spiak) 37 Dziadyk 18
Voitovych  (Wojtowycz) 33 Duda    18
Koval'chyk  (Kowalczyk) 31 Kokhan (Kochan) 18
Prystash  (Prystasz) 31 Kril' (Krill)   18
Petryk 30 Slota 18
Havryliak 29 Makukh (Makuch) 18
Babiak 27 Tkach 18
Tyrpak 27 Horoshchak 17
Vovk (Wowk) 26 Kondrat 17
Kostyk 25 Pasternak 17
Krynyts'kyj (Krynycki) 25 Konyk  16
Kulyk 25 Mylian 16
Roman 25 Senchak (Senczak) 16
Baran   24 Sydor  16
Drahan 24 Fedorchak 16
Kozak 24 Ferents (Ferenc) 16
Verkhol (Werchol) 23 Khomyk (Chomyk) 16
Vyslots'kyj (Wyslocki) 23 Bodnar 15
Hal'ko 23 Halyk 15
Danchak (Danczak) 23 Hotsko 15
Krupa 22 Dmytryk 15
Bobak 21 Zavijskyj (Zawisky) 15
Markovych 21 Kohut   15
Steranka 21 Kravets' (Kravec, Kravitz) 15
Stets' (Stec) 21 Pavlyk 15
Khovanets' (Chovanec) 21 Savchak (Sawczak) 15
Khoma (Choma) 21 Soroka 15
Shevchyk (Szewczyk) 21 Stetsyk (Stecyk) 15
Zaiats' (Zaiac) 20 Khanas (Chanas) 15
Kit 20 Chupak (Czupak) 15
       

 

These most popular Lemko surnames in the 18th Century prove without a doubt the connection of the population on the northern slopes of the Carpathians with Ukrainians. The surnames in Lemkivshchyna as in other regions of Ukraine were formed by various individual identifying characteristics, especially by original occupation, by outward appearance, by individual character traits, by the name of the place where one lived, by territorial and national origin, and by other characteristic naming traits. Lemko given first names of individuals, names of animals and plants, and the names of various objects and abstract meanings were also used as the basis for these surnames, prior to which individual familial appellations were used.

The most widespread group of Lemko surname for the most part came from individual given names. A cursory glance at Lemko surnames demonstrates that male first names were quite often used as the basis for surnames, such as: Adam, Vanio, Vasyl', Havrylo, Hnat, Dmytro, Kuz'ma, Nester, Oleksa, Prokip, Roman, Sava, Stepan, Franko, etc.

Another group is also formed by using male first names with diminutive and endearing grammatical word endings (suffexes): -ko, -ochko, -echko, -en'ko (such as Andreyko, Andrusechko, Hrytsechko, Vasen'ko, Fedorko, Yurko), and with the male endings -ets', -yk, and -chyk (such as Vasylets, Danylets, Romanets, Yakymets, Adamyk, Adamchyk, Van'chyk, Vasylyk, Levchyk, Maksymchyk, Romanyk, Fedorchyk, Khomyk, Yasenyk.)

One peculiarity of these names is that each could be given to a person on the basis of his given name, or on the basis of the given name of one's father (if the father was Vasyl', then his son is Vasylyk.) Personal names with word endings, bearing a somewhat impolite connotation were much less common among Lemkos. Examples of surnames of this type (using the endings -yha, - ura, -yura, -ur, -unda, -ysko, and -ach) include: Vanyha, Fedoryha, Demura, Matsura, Stepura, Fetsyura, Yatsura, Demchur, Tymchur, Klymunda, Kostysko, Petrysko, Romanysko, Semanysko, and Klymach.

A numerous group of Lemko surnames formed from first names is made up of secondary forms, which came about especially to characterize children after their parent's name. Within the boundaries of these secondary forms are those names using the possessive adjectival suffix -iv which indicates the first name of the founder of a family along male lines. Examples of these surnames include: Adamiv, Vaniv, Vasyliv, Hnativ, Hrytsiv, Ivaniv, Il'kiv, Mykhailiv, Pavliv, Petriv, Fedoriv, Yurkiv and many others.

Close to these are other Lemko surnames of adjectival origin formed by using the suffix -yn, such as Andreyishyn, Babyn, Kas'chyn, Marusyn, which were created from nouns ending in -a (in the nominative case.) This -a ending group also gave rise to surnames based on the word form indicating the female spouse family member (using the ending -ykha) stemming from her husband's first name. This ending gives rise to surnames such as Vasylyshyn, Hrytsyshyn, Mykhalyshyn, Petryshyn, Semchyshyn, (from Vasylykha "the wife of Vasyl", Hrytsykha "the wife of Hryts", Mykhalykha "the wife of Mykhailo", Petrykha "the wife of Petro", and Semchykha "the wife of Semen".

A lesser number of surnames from secondary name forms was created by using the patronymic suffexes: -ovych and -evych: Adamovych, Vasyl'kovych, Hnatkovych, Levkovych, Yurkovych. Also belonging to this group is a smaller category of surnames that could be formed from either male or female name forms ending in -a by adding the suffix -ych: Vasych, Ksenych, Fedorych, Yaremych etc.

A large number of Lemko surnames of patronymic origin are also formed by using the ending-ak, -iak, -chak: Vasyliak, Havryliak, Havryshak, Davydiak, Van'chak, Mykhal'chak, Yurchak etc.

Matronymic forms using these endings are considerably fewer but include: Handziak, Hanuliak, Kseniak, Maruniak, Marusiak, Marushchak (from the female first names: Handzia, Hanulia, Ksenia, Marunia, Marus'ka, Marusia.)

Even fewer Lemko surnames created from noun forms are made using the patrynimic suffexes -uk, -iuk, -chuk (Havryliuk, Havrynchuk, Demianchuk, Petrashchak, Petryshchyk, Savchuk, Seniuk) and with the endings -chat, -oviat, -eviat (Antonchat, Sen'koviat, Stetseviat.)

Besides surnames formed on the basis of first names among Lemkos in the 18th century, there were also numerous surnames based on specific characterizations of people on the basis of their family occupations or professions. Examples include: Bodnar (a cooper), Honchar (a potter) , Hudak (a musician), Drotar (a wire-maker), Zil'nyk (a herb gardener), Koval' (a blacksmith), Kolodiy (a cartwright), Kosar (a mower), Kravets' (a tailor), Kukhar (a cook), Kushnir (a furrier), Maliar (a painter), Mel'nyk (a miller), Mlynar (a mill owner), Oliar (an oil presser), Pastukh ( a shepherd), Pochtar (a postman), Reshetar (a net maker), Riznyk (a butcher), Soliar (a salt dealer), Stoliar (a joiner/cabinet maker), Teslia (a carpenter), Tkach (a dyer), Tokar (a turner) , Trach (a  sawyer/sawmill worker), Tsymbalista (a hammer dulcimer player/the kind you often hear played in Dracula movies), Chizhmar (a cobbler), Shvets (a shoemaker).

Examples of a person's social standing and position being used as the basis for some Lemko surnames include: Arendach (a tenant), Bazarnyk (a peddler at an open market), Bakaliar (a sacristan), Bacha (an old respected shepherd), Byskup (a Roman Catholic bishop), Vladyka (an Orthodox or Greek Catholic bishop), Bohach (a rich person), Bohachyk (son of a rich person), Viyt (a bailiff/magistrate of a village), Voznyj (a coachman), Gazdayka (little master of the household), Holota (rabble), Hudachok (a little musician), Husar (a cavalryman), Dziad (a hobo), Diak (a church cantor), Yedynak (an only child), Zatyk (a son-in-law), Katolyk (a Catholic), Kozak (a cossack), Kupets (a merchant), Pysarchyk (a scribe), Popovych (son of an Orthodox priest), Syrota (an orphan), Shlakhtych (a nobleman).

Territorial locations of origin from which the founding father of a family may have come include: Balutiansky (from Balutianka), Biliansky (from Bilianka), Vyslotsky (from Vyslik), Zarshynsky (from Zarshyn), Poliansky (from Poliana), Krynytsky (from Krynitsia), Odredavsky (from Rudavka), Tyliavsky (from Tyliava) etc.

To this last group also belong surnames formed from geographic names using the ending -ak and -iak such as Beskydniak (from the Beskyd mountains), Volynshchak (from Volyn province in Ukraine), Horak (from the mountain), Doshniak (from the village of Doshno), Zhdyniak (from the village of Zhdynia), Podoliak (from the Ukrainian region of Podilia), Potochak (from the stream), and Spishak (from Spish).

There are also the following surnames using the adjectival suffix endings -nyj, and -ovyj: Horbovyj (on the hill), Hranychnyj (on the border), Dorozhnyj (by the road), Zapotochnyj (across the stream), Pidhirnyj (at the base of the mountain).

Ethnic origin is also used as a basis for some surnames: Boyko, Volokh (a Walachian), Lemtsio (a little Lemko), Rusynko (a small Ruthenian), Venhryn (a Hungarian), Zhydyk (a small Jew), Liakh (a slightly derogatory name for a Pole), Madyar (a Hungarian), Mazur (a Polish Mazurian from the North), Moskal (a Moscovite - what our ancestors always called Russians from Russia), Nimets (a German), Poliak (a Pole), Tatar (a Tartar/ descendents of the Mongols who settled in Crimea), Turok (a Turk), Tsyhan (a Gypsy), Shved (a Swede.)

A relatively high percentage of of Lemko surnames originate from ancient pre-Christian names: Bilyk (squirrel), Holey, Kokhan (beloved), Krasunko (handsome man), Mylyj (dear one), Strashko (the terrifying one), Sukhan (the lean one).

Additionally, there are surnames, which characterized people on the basis of their outward appearance or by other individual traits. Such characterizations were widely used in a mataphoric sense as groups of words, such as in the names of animals: Baran (ram), Byk (bull), Bober (beaver), Borsuk (badger), Verkholiak (tit-lark), Vovk (wolf),Vorona (crow), Hnyda (nit), Kit (cat), Kobyliak (mare), Kohut (rooster), Holub (dove), Huska (goose), Zayats (hare), Zozulia (cuckoo), Kavka (jackdaw), Konyk (horsey), Kril' (rabbit), Kozel (billy goat), Kuna (marten), Lys (fox), Medvid' (bear), Mukha (fly), Rak (crab), Rybka (little fish), Slymak (snail), Sova (owl), Soroka (magpie), Tkhir (skunk/polecat), Khrushch (may bug/scarab), Tsap (billy goat), Shpak (starling).

Another group of surnames stem from names of plants: Bibko (bean), Hrab (elm tree), Hrusha (pear tree), Dub (oak tree), Klen (maple tree), Kriak (hedge), Loboda (pigweed), Slyva (plum tree), Slyvka (plum), Smerek (fir tree), Yavir (maple tree).

Surnames from various tangeable things, especially items of work or their component parts include: Baniak (pot), Varekha (ladle), Hal'ba (half liter glass), Dzvonyk (bell), Drapach (horse comb), Duda (pipe, reed), Kolyska (cradle), Korba (crooked handle), Liushnia (curved piece of wood), Motyka (hoe), Opalka (feed sack), Opar (scalded skin), Palytsia (cane), Truba (trumpet),Tsybukh (smoking pipe tube), Tsidylo (strainer), Tsymbala (kettle drum).

Names of food items also used as the basis for surnames: Borshch (rich beet soup), Varianka, Halushka (dumpling), Dziama (boiled beef), Zhentychka (whey), Kyselytsia (a tasty somewhat sour soup known in Polish as zurek), Maslianka (buttermilk), Pyrih (known to Poles and Americans as pierogi), Polyvka (sauce, broth, soup), Steranka (dough boiled in milk), Yukha (fish soup), Yabchanka (apple sauce).

Surnames based on parts of the anatomy include: Varga (thick lip), Hryva (long thick hair), Holova (head), Dziubak (a pockmarked person), Kyshka (guts), Kolinko (knee), Laba (paw, large hand), Noha (leg), Pelekh (tuft of hair), Piastuk (fist), Kopyto (hoof), Ratytsia (cloven hoof).

Surnames from phenomena of nature include: Hrad (hail), Moroz (frost), Slota (rainy weather), Tucha (thunderstorm), Kholod (the cold).

In order to characterize persons by their external and internal traits, many words were used as surnames, not only in a transference sense but also by direct meaning. In this way the following Lemko surnames originated: Bezzubyj (toothless), Holovatyj (big-headed), Bilousyj (white moustached), Gambal' (mouthy), Huban (lippy), Holyk (naked guy), Horban (hunchbacked), Zubal' (toothy or dentist), Kalichka (cripple), Kastranets (castrated), Kyrpan (turned up nose), Kuliavyj (bum foot or on crutches), Maslianyj (greasy, oily), Nechystyj (unclean), Plaskyj (flat), Slipak (blind man), Slutyj (enfeebled), Solomianyj (made of straw), Khraptsio (snorer), Khudyj (skinny guy), Bolybriukh (stomach ache), Vertun (restless person), Hlukhanych (deaf man), Dykyj (wild one), Kusala (biter), Mudryj (person of wisdom), Chvanio (a wise guy).

If one divided Lemko surnames of the 18th century into groups, then the most numerous group stems from those originating from first names - almost half (45% of all names). Approximately 22% of Lemko surnames originate from character traits, and 20% according to the activity (job/trade) of the first person to bear the surname.

Lemko surnames of the 18th century by and large (over 80%) are of Ukrainian origin, many of which can also be found among Poles. Among the catagory of "foreign" surnames, the greatest number are of Polish origin. Surnames of Slovak, Hungarian, and Romanian origin in the northern part of Lemkivshchyna in the 18th century were very few.

The lack of a larger number of 18th century Lemko surnames of Romanian-Moldavian origin gives credence to the fact that Lemkos are a part of the Ukrainian people and also casts doubt on the theory of a mass Walachian colonization of the Western Carpathians.

 

Alphabetical Listing of Surnames found in villages of Gmina Cisna

No. Surname                                        Village
  1 Adamczyk***                                    Zubracze
  2 Andera                                         Dolzyca
  3 Andrejko                                       Strubowiska
  4 Andrejko                                       Smerek
  5 Andruszkewycz                                  Lopienka
  6 Andruszkiewicz                                 Buk
  7 Andryjiszyn                                    Smerek
  8 Babiak                                         Luh
  9 Babicz                                         Liszna
 10 Babicz                                         Dolzyca
 11 Babicz                                         Habkowce
 12 Babiszak                                       Krywe
 13 Babycz                                         Lopienka
 14 Babyszyn                                       Krywe
 15 Baca                                           Buk
 16 Baer                                           Cisna
 17 Bahan                                          Smerek
 18 Bajik****                                      Cisna
 19 Balabiryk                                      Cisna
 20 Balapczak                                      Habkowce
 21 Balata                                         Cisna
 22 Baleszczak                                     Cisna
 23 Balik                                          Krywe
 24 Banbard                                        Zawoj
 25 Banit                                          Lopienka
 26 Bankowski                                      Jaworzec
 27 Baraniw****                                    Cisna
 28 Basarab                                        Buk
 29 Basarab                                        Zawoj
 30 Batyk                                          Krywe
 31 Baulik                                         Solinka
 32 Bec                                            Buk
 33 Beca                                           Luh
 34 Beca                                           Jaworzec
 35 Beca                                           Krywe
 36 Beca                                           Strubowiska
 37 Beinlich                                       Cisna
 38 Bej                                            Smerek
 39 Belej                                          Buk
 40 Berczanski                                     Smerek
 41 Berezanski                                     Strubowiska
 42 Berezanski                                     Jaworzec
 43 Berezanski                                     Krywe
 44 Bereznicki                                     Krywe
 45 Berezowski                                     Strubowiska
 46 Bichun                                         Dolzyca
 47 Bihun                                          Jaworzec
 48 Bihun                                          Przyslup
 49 Bihun                                          Smerek
 50 Bilohon                                        Wetlina
 51 Birnasiewicz                                   Lopienka
 52 Bisjuhan (2)                                   Wetlina
 53 Blauczak                                       Cisna
 54 Bljacha (2)                                    Wetlina
 55 Bobczynski                                     Cisna
 56 Boberski                                       Habkowce
 57 Boberski                                       Krywe
 58 Boberski                                       Cisna
 59 Boberski                                       Dolzyca
 60 Bobrzynski                                     Cisna
 61 Boburczak                                      Wetlina
 62 Borko                                          Zawoj
 63 Brandziar                                      Przyslup
 64 Bratanycz                                      Dolzyca
 65 Briaza                                         Dolzyca
 66 Broniewicz                                     Lopienka
 67 Broniewycz                                     Lopienka
 68 Bryndzar                                       Buk
 69 Buber                                          Smerek
 70 Buchwak                                        Jaworzec
 71 Buchwak (3)                                    Wetlina
 72 Bunga (11)                                     Wetlina
 73 Burcza                                         Wetlina
 74 Buszowiecki                                    Jaworzec
 75 Byk                                            Zawoj
 76 Bylyj                                          Buk
 77 Byrcza                                         Wetlina
 78 Bzdonia                                        Przyslup
 79 Cap                                            Smerek
 80 Chabal                                         Buk
 81 Chabalyk (Hryc)                                Buk
 82 Charchalis (priest)                            Dolzyca
 83 Chaszczak                                      Buk
 84 Chaszcziwskyj                                  Wetlina
 85 Chilinski                                      Cisna
 86 Chitlewycz                                     Luh
 87 Cholop                                         Dolzyca
 88 Ciesla                                         Smerek
 89 Cupryk                                         Przyslup
 90 Cupryk****                                     Cisna
 91 Cwenar                                         Liszna
 92 Cwerd                                          Smerek
 93 Cygan                                          Strubowiska
 94 Cygan                                          Cisna
 95 Cygan (3)                                      Wetlina
 96 Cyganyk                                        Solinka
 97 Cyhan                                          Dolzyca
 98 Cyktycz                                        Wetlina
 99 Czarny                                         Cisna
100 Czekerylo                                      Solinka
101 Czerczak                                       Smerek
102 Czerenkiewicz (Czwerenkiewicz)                 Habkowce
103 Czerweniak                                     Luh
104 Czerwienski                                    Jaworzec
105 Czichran                                       Wetlina
106 Czopak                                         Dolzyca
107 Czopak                                         Krywe
108 Czopak                                         Liszna
109 Czopek                                         Cisna
110 Czorna                                         Wetlina
111 Czuchrasz                                      Buk
112 Czulak (3)                                     Wetlina
113 Czwerwiniak                                    Buk
114 Dacko                                          Lopienka
115 Danilowicz                                     Krywe
116 Darianycz                                      Jaworzec
117 Demczak                                        Krywe
118 Demkow                                         Buk
119 Dobinski                                       Zawoj
120 Dobransky                                      Zubracze
121 Dobrianskyj                                    Lopienka
122 Dobrzynski                                     Cisna
123 Dobysz                                         Smerek
124 Doliniak                                       Buk
125 Dolyniak                                       Lopienka
126 Domarackyj                                     Lopienka
127 Drabiszak (Drobyszak)                          Krywe
128 Drobko                                         Solinka
129 Drozd                                          Lopienka
130 Drozdowski                                     Lopienka
131 Dub (Semohyj)                                  Buk
132 Dubiak                                         Solinka
133 Dubianicz                                      Habkowce
134 Dudyn                                          Buk
135 Duplak                                         Cisna
136 Duplak***                                      Liszna
137 Duzniak***                                     Zubracze
138 Dymitr**                                       Zubracze
139 Dzendzia                                       Luh
140 Dziendzia                                      Jaworzec
141 Dzikowski                                      Krywe
142 Dziuba                                         Smerek
143 Dziuba (6)                                     Wetlina
144 Dziunycz (7)                                   Wetlina
145 Dziurow                                        Jaworzec
146 Fanczak                                        Cisna
147 Fedczyk                                        Lopienka
148 Fedczyk                                        Buk
149 Fedorak                                        Solinka
150 Fedoriw                                        Solinka
151 Fedorkow                                       Buk
152 Fedoryszyn                                     Dolzyca
153 Fencyszyn                                      Jaworzec
154 Fenczyszyn                                     Luh
155 Ferdycz                                        Buk
156 Ferensewitch (Halushka)                        Strubowiska
157 Feszkanicz                                     Luh
158 Ficor                                          Smerek
159 Fidczak                                        Wetlina
160 Fidyrko                                        Zawoj
161 Figura                                         Buk
162 Fil                                            Smerek
163 Filipiak***                                    Zubracze
164 Franczak                                       Buk
165 Frycz                                          Krywe
166 Frycz                                          Liszna
167 Frycz                                          Przyslup
168 Frycz                                          Zubracze
169 Furmanczyk                                     Cisna
170 Fusiak                                         Luh
171 Futrega                                        Dolzyca
172 Gaber                                          Cisna
173 Gaczkiewicz                                    Cisna
174 Galiant                                        Wetlina
175 Gato                                           Habkowce
176 Gebanycz                                       Cisna
177 Gedroyc - Prince Wladyslaw Gedroyc*****        Zubracze
178 Gershon*                                       Lopienka
179 Golowna                                        Habkowce
180 Gondar                                         Cisna
181 Gondir                                         Przyslup
182 Gondyr (Gondor)                                Krywe
183 Gorahel                                        Dolzyca
184 Gorol                                          Jaworzec
185 Gorzak                                         Jaworzec
186 Graubarth*                                     Cisna
187 Graubert*                                      Lopienka
188 Grendey                                        Strubowiska
189 Gula                                           Krywe
190 Gunar                                          Buk
191 Gutyk                                          Habkowce
192 Gyda                                           Dolzyca
193 Gyda (Madiar, Kozlania, Mykola)                Buk
194 Habak                                          Lopienka
195 Habuda                                         Wetlina
196 Hajtko                                         Luh
197 Halajko                                        Dolzyca
198 Haluszczak                                     Luh
199 Haluszka                                       Buk
200 Haluszka                                       Dolzyca
201 Halycz                                         Jaworzec
202 Hanczar                                        Buk
203 Haniek                                         Buk
204 Hanko                                          Krywe
205 Harasym                                        Dolzyca
206 Hasycz                                         Solinka
207 Hatazka                                        Buk
208 Hawryla                                        Liszna
209 Hawrylo                                        Krywe
210 Helcel                                         Cisna
211 Hilszanskyj (2)                                Wetlina
212 Hlodko                                         Luh
213 Hluch (Gluchy)                                 Habkowce
214 Hnat                                           Krywe
215 Hnatko                                         Buk
216 Hnatyw                                         Smerek
217 Hodowaniec                                     Cisna
218 Hodowaniec                                     Dolzyca
219 Hodowaniec                                     Habkowce
220 Hodowaniec                                     Jaworzec
221 Hodowaniec                                     Liszna
222 Hodowaniec                                     Luh
223 Holen                                          Smerek
224 Holik                                          Buk
225 Holobinka                                      Smerek
226 Holobiszczak                                   Przyslup
227 Holubczak                                      Buk
228 Holubinka                                      Smerek
229 Holy                                           Buk
230 Homej                                          Zawoj
231 Horodczak                                      Krywe
232 Hoszowski                                      Smerek
233 Hotyczko                                       Habkowce
234 Hreszko                                        Luh
235 Hrycyskiw****                                  Cisna
236 Hrycziw                                        Dolzyca
237 Hrynkiw                                        Solinka
238 Huculyszyn                                     Dolzyca
239 Huczko                                         Dolzyca
240 Huczko(Hucka)                                  Jaworzec
241 Huczko**                                       Zawoj
242 Huk                                            Jaworzec
243 Husak                                          Buk
244 Husenica                                       Cisna
245 Husenycia                                      Cisna
246 Husenycial                                     Habkowce
247 Husianica                                      Liszna
248 Husianycia                                     Zubracze
249 Husianycia                                     Krywe
250 Husienica                                      Solinka
251 Hutnik                                         Smerek
252 Hutnyk                                         Przyslup
253 Hwozdiar                                       Cisna
254 Hydrusz                                        Dolzyca
255 Hynar                                          Habkowce
256 Hyrmot                                         Przyslup
257 Hyszta                                         Liszna
258 Hyszta                                         Przyslup
259 Hyszta                                         Krywe
260 Hyszta (Hystow)                                Krywe
261 Ignarowicz                                     Lopienka
262 Iwanczyk                                       Krywe
263 Iwaniczyn                                      Smerek
264 Iwaniszczow                                    Buk
265 Iwanyszyn                                      Wetlina
266 Jablonski                                      Habkowce
267 Jachwak                                        Buk
268 Jacniak                                        Smerek
269 Jacyn                                          Buk
270 Jahwak                                         Dolzyca
271 Jawornicki                                     Jaworzec
272 Jedyn                                          Buk
273 Jizyk                                          Dolzyca
274 Jojkan                                         Cisna
275 Jojkan                                         Habkowce
276 Jojkan                                         Krywe
277 Jurkow                                         Buk
278 Jurkowicz                                      Solinka
279 Kablasz                                        Zawoj
280 Kaczor                                         Smerek
281 Kaczur                                         Habkowce
282 Kaczur                                         Jaworzec
283 Kaczur                                         Smerek
284 Kaczur                                         Zubracze
285 Kalinicz (Kalynycha)                           Buk
286 Kalynycz                                       Jaworzec
287 Kalynycz                                       Przyslup
288 Kalynycz                                       Smerek
289 Kalynycz                                       Wetlina
290 Kaniuk                                         Strubowiska
291 Karabin                                        Dolzyca
292 Karabin                                        Lopienka
293 Karabin                                        Zubracze
294 Karal*                                         Cisna
295 Karski                                         Cisna
296 Kawulicz                                       Solinka
297 Kawulycz                                       Liszna
298 Kawulycz                                       Lopienka
299 Kawylycz                                       Cisna
300 Kellar                                         Habkowce
301 Kesler*                                        Liszna
302 Kilbur*                                        Cisna
303 Kimak (5)                                      Wetlina
304 Kit (Kotcha)                                   Buk
305 Klec                                           Krywe
306 Kluka                                          Habkowce
307 Koba                                           Strubowiska
308 Kocan                                          Buk
309 Kocan                                          Habkowce
310 Kocan                                          Krywe
311 Koczerawczyk                                   Przyslup
312 Kodyk                                          Luh
313 Kolesar                                        Jaworzec
314 Kolesar                                        Przyslup
315 Kolesar (2)                                    Wetlina
316 Kolinczak                                      Lopienka
317 Kolinczak                                      Smerek
318 Komornicki                                     Cisna
319 Kopalciw                                       Strubowiska
320 Kopilec                                        Smerek
321 Kopylczak                                      Smerek
322 Kopylec                                        Wetlina
323 Korenda                                        Zawoj
324 Koreniowskyj (Lucio, Frank)                    Buk
325 Kornfeld                                       Przyslup
326 Korol                                          Smerek
327 Korol (3)                                      Wetlina
328 Koruc                                          Buk
329 Koruc                                          Zubracze
330 Korzyniowski                                   Lopienka
331 Koslyk                                         Liszna
332 Kost                                           Dolzyca
333 Kost (6)                                       Wetlina
334 Kostiw                                         Habkowce
335 Kostyk                                         Dolzyca
336 Kostyk                                         Liszna
337 Kosz                                           Smerek
338 Kot                                            Buk
339 Kot                                            Zawoj
340 Kotanski                                       Luh
341 Kowal                                          Smerek
342 Kowal                                          Buk
343 Kowal                                          Wetlina
344 Kowal                                          Strubowiska
345 Kowalow                                        Smerek
346 Kowalowy                                       Buk
347 Kozinczak (Botulycz)                           Buk
348 Krainik                                        Buk
349 Krajewski                                      Zawoj
350 Krecowski                                      Buk
351 Krepicz                                        Habkowce
352 Krepycz                                        Dolzyca
353 Krupa                                          Lopienka
354 Krupa                                          Krywe
355 Krupiak                                        Buk
356 Krupski                                        Buk
357 Krynicki                                       Cisna
358 Krysa                                          Solinka
359 Kuca                                           Strubowiska
360 Kucy                                           Habkowce
361 Kucy (Konyczek, Antoniw, Fedor, Petro)         Buk
362 Kucyba                                         Luh
363 Kucyj                                          Zawoj
364 Kucyj                                          Cisna
365 Kulinczak                                      Lopienka
366 Kulok                                          Buk
367 Kulybanycz (5)                                 Wetlina
368 Kulynycz (2)                                   Wetlina
369 Kunczyk                                        Liszna
370 Kuriatnyk                                      Zubracze
371 Kurpiak                                        Krywe
372 Kurylo                                         Habkowce
373 Kusznir                                        Jaworzec
374 Kusznir                                        Smerek
375 Kuziatnyk                                      Krywe
376 Kuzinczak                                      Buk
377 Kuzma                                          Habkowce
378 Kuzma                                          Cisna
379 Kwiecienski                                    Cisna
380 Kyrpa                                          Cisna
381 Kyrpa                                          Krywe
382 Labej                                          Cisna
383 Labys                                          Cisna
384 Lachawczak                                     Przyslup
385 Lachawczyk                                     Krywe
386 Lacur                                          Cisna
387 Laczewczyk                                     Liszna
388 Lannik                                         Dolzyca
389 Lapej                                          Luh
390 Lawer                                          Luh
391 Lawer                                          Lopienka
392 Lawriwskyj                                     Przyslup
393 Lawrowski                                      Cisna
394 Lawrowski                                      Dolzyca
395 Lawrowski                                      Krywe
396 Lawrowski                                      Smerek
397 Lawryk                                         Cisna
398 Lawryk                                         Cisna
399 Lawryk                                         Dolzyca
400 Lawryk                                         Habkowce
401 Lawryk                                         Krywe
402 Laydak                                         Buk
403 Lazor                                          Buk
404 Lazor                                          Dolzyca
405 Lazoryszyn                                     Zawoj
406 Lazoryszyn                                     Smerek
407 Lazoryszyn                                     Strubowiska
408 Legdan                                         Smerek
409 Lenko                                          Buk
410 Lenko                                          Cisna
411 Lenkow                                         Dolzyca
412 Lenkow                                         Cisna
413 Lepa                                           Buk
414 Leszczynski                                    Strubowiska
415 Lewandowski                                    Cisna
416 Liberny                                        Buk
417 Lieber*                                        Lopienka
418 Liga                                           Buk
419 Liga                                           Dolzyca
420 Liga                                           Krywe
421 Lisczak                                        Cisna
422 Lisznianski                                    Krywe
423 Litawa                                         Cisna
424 Litowczak                                      Jaworzec
425 Lopuch (3)                                     Wetlina
426 Lowczyk                                        Krywe
427 Lubinski***                                    Liszna
428 Lucyszka                                       Krywe
429 Lucyszka                                       Strubowiska
430 Luczak                                         Smerek
431 Luczka                                         Dolzyca
432 Luczka                                         Smerek
433 Luczka (Demko, Potoczaniw, Lisnyj, Mychail)    Buk
434 Luczko                                         Solinka
435 Luczkow                                        Buk
436 Lumianyk (4)                                   Wetlina
437 Luzanyn                                        Dolzyca
438 Luzar                                          Cisna
439 Lyczak                                         Cisna
440 Lyczkow                                        Lopienka
441 Lynik                                          Solinka
442 Lyta                                           Cisna
443 Lytowczak                                      Smerek
444 Lytyk                                          Habkowce
445 Macko                                          Dolzyca
446 Macynski                                       Solinka
447 Macyszak                                       Krywe
448 Macyszak (Gydylak)                             Buk
449 Mahlanyn                                       Dolzyca
450 Mainardi                                       Cisna
451 Makar                                          Dolzyca
452 Makar                                          Jaworzec
453 Makara                                         Dolzyca
454 Makuryszak                                     Habkowce
455 Malec                                          Lopienka
456 Maleyki (Jelko)                                Buk
457 Maliniak                                       Lopienka
458 Maliniak (Dada, Mykola)                        Buk
459 Malyk                                          Buk
460 Malyniak                                       Lopienka
461 Malyniak                                       Luh
462 Malz*                                          Cisna
463 Manastyrski                                    Buk
464 Mandziak                                       Cisna
465 Maniawski                                      Buk
466 Maniowczak                                     Cisna
467 Markanicz                                      Krywe
468 Markanycz                                      Habkowce
469 Markanycz                                      Cisna
470 Markanycz                                      Dolzyca
471 Markanycz                                      Liszna
472 Markanycz                                      Przyslup
473 Markiewicz                                     Cisna
474 Markirycz                                      Cisna
475 Marko                                          Luh
476 Marszalek                                      Smerek
477 Martinger                                      Krywe
478 Maruszczak                                     Luh
479 Maruszczak                                     Strubowiska
480 Maruszczak                                     Zawoj
481 Marycz                                         Luh
482 Marycz                                         Wetlina
483 Marynczak                                      Habkowce
484 Marynczak                                      Liszna
485 Maryszak                                       Buk
486 Masniak                                        Przyslup
487 Masnyj                                         Dolzyca
488 Mata                                           Krywe
489 Matej                                          Cisna
490 Matejski                                       Buk
491 Matis                                          Cisna
492 Matnik                                         Buk
493 Matwijczyk                                     Wetlina
494 Mazur                                          Cisna
495 Mazur                                          Dolzyca
496 Mazurek (Mazur, Pietryczka)                    Buk
497 Mecinski                                       Lopienka
498 Medwid                                         Dolzyca
499 Medwid                                         Smerek
500 Meinardi                                       Cisna
501 Meinardi                                       Liszna
502 Meissner                                       Cisna
503 Melnyk                                         Smerek
504 Melyn                                          Solinka
505 Menta                                          Cisna
506 Menta                                          Krywe
507 Michalik                                       Buk
508 Michalyszyn                                    Buk
509 Michawczak                                     Przyslup
510 Michawka                                       Wetlina
511 Michnik                                        Buk
512 Midjanowskyj                                   Lopienka
513 Miedzianowski                                  Lopienka
514 Mielanicz                                      Cisna
515 Mika                                           Luh
516 Mikula                                         Luh
517 Milawczak                                      Strubowiska
518 Minka                                          Wetlina
519 Misko                                          Zawoj
520 Mitman*                                        Liszna
521 Mokej                                          Zubracze
522 Moskal                                         Smerek
523 Moskal                                         Strubowiska
524 Mruk                                           Luh
525 Mucha                                          Wetlina
526 Muchar                                         Krywe
527 Muszynski                                      Jaworzec
528 Muszynski                                      Lopienka
529 Mychalyk                                       Lopienka
530 Mychalyszyn                                    Lopienka
531 Mynta                                          Liszna
532 Mynta                                          Przyslup
533 Myrdzinski                                     Buk
534 Naglebusch*                                    Cisna
535 Nalesnik (Maksymka, Swatanycz)                 Buk
536 Nalisnik                                       Krywe
537 Nalisnik                                       Buk
538 Nasinnik                                       Cisna
539 Nasinnik                                       Lopienka
540 Nasinnyk                                       Lopienka
541 Nebora                                         Lopienka
542 Niemczszyn                                     Smerek
543 Nikolow                                        Habkowce
544 Nizankiewicz                                   Lopienka
545 Nizar                                          Buk
546 Nizenkewicz                                    Lopienka
547 Nodzio                                         Jaworzec
548 Nojda**                                        Zawoj
549 Nykolysak                                      Przyslup
550 Nykolyszak (2)                                 Wetlina
551 Obuszczak                                      Luh
552 Ochnycz                                        Jaworzec
553 Oleksiw                                        Dolzyca
554 Oleksyszak (2)                                 Wetlina
555 Olesky                                         Dolzyca
556 Opalka                                         Solinka
557 Ostalecki                                      Liszna
558 Oszczep                                        Luh
559 Oszczep                                        Smerek
560 Oszczep                                        Strubowiska
561 Pacalaty                                       Buk
562 Pacolaty                                       Dolzyca
563 Padlycz                                        Luh
564 Paechter*                                      Zubracze
565 Palada                                         Solinka
566 Paniszak                                       Habkowce
567 Paniszczak                                     Krywe
568 Pankiw                                         Krywe
569 Panyszczak                                     Krywe
570 Panyszczak                                     Solinka
571 Papczak                                        Zubracze
572 Papczania                                      Dolzyca
573 Papinczak                                      Buk
574 Papinczak                                      Lopienka
575 Papinczak                                      Luh
576 Paranicz                                       Krywe
577 Paranycz                                       Luh
578 Paranycz                                       Przyslup
579 Paranycz                                       Smerek
580 Paras                                          Cisna
581 Paraska                                        Cisna
582 Paraska                                        Dolzyca
583 Paraska (Paraskanicz)                          Habkowce
584 Paraskow                                       Cisna
585 Paraszka                                       Cisna
586 Pasieniewicz                                   Cisna
587 Pastuch                                        Solinka
588 Pastuch                                        Krywe
589 Paszkiewicz                                    Cisna
590 Patlewicz                                      Cisna
591 Pawlyszyn                                      Dolzyca
592 Pejsakiewicz*                                  Cisna
593 Pelyp                                          Cisna
594 Pelypania                                      Przyslup
595 Petrosz                                        Luh
596 Petrusiewicz                                   Krywe
597 Petryk                                         Dolzyca
598 Pil                                            Krywe
599 Pindziola                                      Dolzyca
600 Pindziola                                      Habkowce
601 Pindziola                                      Krywe
602 Pindzola                                       Cisna
603 Pipczak                                        Krywe
604 Piszyk                                         Buk
605 Pliszka                                        Liszna
606 Pliszka                                        Cisna
607 Pliszka                                        Habkowce
608 Pliszka                                        Krywe
609 Pliszka                                        Przyslup
610 Pliszka                                        Smerek
611 Pliszka                                        Strubowiska
612 Pluchacz                                       Habkowce
613 Pochlodawa                                     Krywe
614 Podolak                                        Habkowce
615 Podolak                                        Strubowiska
616 Pohlo (Pohlar)                                 Jaworzec
617 Pojuljak                                       Wetlina
618 Polanski                                       Dolzyca
619 Poliwkanycz                                    Buk
620 Polulujach                                     Smerek
621 Popowicz                                       Dolzyca
622 Popowicz                                       Strubowiska
623 Popowycz                                       Wetlina
624 Pralka                                         Dolzyca
625 Prokopow                                       Cisna
626 Prusiak                                        Smerek
627 Przyplot                                       Zawoj
628 Pszyk                                          Przyslup
629 Pszyk                                          Krywe
630 Ptaszek                                        Krywe
631 Rabik                                          Krywe
632 Rabik (Rowynskyj)                              Buk
633 Radzik                                         Cisna
634 Rebinczak                                      Wetlina
635 Rebinczok                                      Wetlina
636 Rewak                                          Smerek
637 Rewak (3)                                      Wetlina
638 Rohacz                                         Liszna
639 Rohanak                                        Strubowiska
640 Roman                                          Liszna
641 Roman                                          Luh
642 Roman                                          Cisna
643 Roman                                          Dolzyca
644 Roman                                          Krywe
645 Roth Szyja (Korczma)                           Buk
646 Rowenskyj                                      Dolzyca
647 Rozenbam*                                      Cisna
648 Rudzik                                         Cisna
649 Rusnak (Cwira)                                 Buk
650 Rusniak                                        Buk
651 Rusniak                                        Jaworzec
652 Rusyn                                          Krywe
653 Rusyn                                          Smerek
654 Rusyn                                          Strubowiska
655 Rusynkiewicz                                   Strubowiska
656 Rybinczak                                      Smerek
657 Sagal                                          Buk
658 Sagalowicz                                     Buk
659 Salamaszak                                     Wetlina
660 Salamaszczak                                   Strubowiska
661 Sarak                                          Zawoj
662 Sawacki                                        Dolzyca
663 Sawczak                                        Cisna
664 Saweczka                                       Buk
665 Sawka                                          Buk
666 Sawka                                          Dolzyca
667 Sawka (3)                                      Wetlina
668 Sawkanicz                                      Zubracze
669 Sawkow                                         Cisna
670 Sawkulicz                                      Habkowce
671 Sawkulicz                                      Liszna
672 Sawkulycz                                      Przyslup
673 Sawkulycz                                      Wetlina
674 Semania                                        Strubowiska
675 Semczyk****                                    Cisna
676 Semetkewycz                                    Solinka
677 Semetkowski                                    Buk
678 Semkiw                                         Zawoj
679 Semkiw (Broniewicz)                            Buk
680 Semko                                          Habkowce
681 Sereda                                         Buk
682 Serniak                                        Krywe
683 Siemietkowski (Szemetkowski)                   Krywe
684 Siwak                                          Dolzyca
685 Siwek                                          Buk
686 Skryp                                          Habkowce
687 Skwirzynski                                    Liszna
688 Skyba                                          Smerek
689 Skydan                                         Smerek
690 Slabak                                         Buk
691 Sliwka (Sliwkanycz)                            Habkowce
692 Sliwka (Sliwkanycz)                            Krywe
693 Sloniowski                                     Buk
694 Slywkanycz                                     Przyslup
695 Smerekowski                                    Krywe
696 Smolnicki                                      Cisna
697 Smolnicki                                      Habkowce
698 Smotrycki                                      Cisna
699 Sokiera                                        Krywe
700 Sokolowski                                     Lopienka
701 Sokyra                                         Cisna
702 Sokyra                                         Krywe
703 Sokyra                                         Smerek
704 Solan                                          Zawoj
705 Soltys                                         Lopienka
706 Soltys                                         Zawoj
707 Soltysik                                       Buk
708 Solyba                                         Smerek
709 Somer*                                         Cisna
710 Soniag                                         Habkowce
711 Soroka (4)                                     Wetlina
712 Sridczak                                       Wetlina
713 Stabak                                         Buk
714 Stachurskyj                                    Strubowiska
715 Stachurskyj (3)                                Wetlina
716 Stanek                                         Buk
717 Stanicki                                       Buk
718 Stanko                                         Cisna
719 Stanko                                         Krywe
720 Staruch                                        Buk
721 Staruch (Jachwak)                              Buk
722 Stasiuk                                        Buk
723 Stawny                                         Wetlina
724 Stefanik                                       Buk
725 Stefanyk                                       Lopienka
726 Stepanowycz                                    Strubowiska
727 Steranka                                       Zubracze
728 Sternik                                        Buk
729 Sterzen                                        Luh
730 Stojko                                         Habkowce
731 Stolica (Dacio)                                Buk
732 Stolik                                         Buk
733 Stolub                                         Buk
734 Stolycia                                       Jaworzec
735 Stolycia                                       Zawoj
736 Strobilka                                      Dolzyca
737 Strungowski                                    Krywe
738 Strungowski                                    Przyslup
739 Stryniak                                       Buk
740 Stryniak                                       Krywe
741 Stupnicki                                      Buk
742 Styfkanycz                                     Habkowce
743 Styranka                                       Dolzyca
744 Styszta                                        Krywe
745 Suczyk                                         Dolzyca
746 Suk                                            Buk
747 Sukyra                                         Dolzyca
748 Sulypka (2)                                    Wetlina
749 Suszko                                         Buk
750 Swanyn                                         Dolzyca
751 Swistak                                        Strubowiska
752 Swydak                                         Smerek
753 Swystak                                        Smerek
754 Swystar                                        Jaworzec
755 Swystiak                                       Wetlina
756 Sycz (3)                                       Wetlina
757 Syczak                                         Lopienka
758 Sydorek                                        Wetlina
759 Sydorjak                                       Wetlina
760 Sywackyj                                       Przyslup
761 Sywanycz                                       Przyslup
762 Sywanycz                                       Strubowiska
763 Szafranski                                     Cisna
764 Szahmat                                        Dolzyca
765 Szaskiewicz                                    Buk
766 Szcherba                                       Zawoj
767 Szczerbanowski                                 Krywe
768 Szdywar                                        Cisna
769 Szelemieta                                     Krywe
770 Szenik                                         Zawoj
771 Szeremeta                                      Krywe
772 Szewczyk                                       Cisna
773 Szewczyk                                       Habkowce
774 Szewec                                         Dolzyca
775 Szolot                                         Krywe
776 Szpak                                          Luh
777 Szumanski                                      Zawoj
778 Szunc                                          Buk
779 Szunc                                          Wetlina
780 Szutiak                                        Jaworzec
781 Szutiak                                        Smerek
782 Szwarc                                         Dolzyca
783 Szyca                                          Buk
784 Szydywar                                       Cisna
785 Szydywar                                       Dolzyca
786 Szydywar                                       Krywe
787 Szydywar                                       Habkowce
788 Szync (3)                                      Wetlina
789 Taciak (3)                                     Wetlina
790 Tanczak                                        Habkowce
791 Tarawskyj                                      Lopienka
792 Tchir                                          Luh
793 Telesnicki                                     Buk
794 Terawski                                       Cisna
795 Terlecki                                       Strubowiska
796 Terlecki                                       Buk
797 Terlecki                                       Zawoj
798 Tlystyj                                        Wetlina
799 Tokarczyk                                      Smerek
800 Tokarski                                       Cisna
801 Triszczocha                                    Przyslup
802 Truchacz                                       Zawoj
803 Truchan                                        Smerek
804 Trzcianski                                     Buk
805 Trzcinski                                      Cisna
806 Turber                                         Cisna
807 Tworynski                                      Jaworzec
808 Tyczar                                         Smerek
809 Tylawski                                       Lopienka
810 Tymciow                                        Luh
811 Tymciow (Pylyp)                                Buk
812 Tymkiw                                         Solinka
813 Tytanycz                                       Smerek
814 Tytanycz (4)                                   Wetlina
815 Wackow                                         Habkowce
816 Wajda                                          Krywe
817 Wajda                                          Zawoj
818 Wajdycha                                       Przyslup
819 Walegarz                                       Liszna
820 Warcholak                                      Dolzyca
821 Warcholak                                      Strubowiska
822 Wasser                                         Cisna
823 Wasser                                         Lopienka
824 Wasylkiw                                       Przyslup
825 Wasylkiw (4)                                   Wetlina
826 Wasylyszyn                                     Smerek
827 Watah                                          Buk
828 Wawszczak                                      Smerek
829 Wetchacz                                       Dolzyca
830 Wetchacz                                       Krywe
831 Wethacz                                        Dolzyca
832 Wierzbicki                                     Cisna
833 Wierzbicki***                                  Liszna
834 Wislocki                                       Liszna
835 Witow                                          Cisna
836 Wituch                                         Dolzyca
837 Wizniak                                        Smerek
838 Wizniak (3)                                    Wetlina
839 Wojtanowski                                    Zawoj
840 Wojtowicz (Pan)                                Buk
841 Woliszakiw                                     Dolzyca
842 Wolosky(Hershko)                               Strubowiska
843 Woloszanowski                                  Cisna
844 Wolw                                           Cisna
845 Wowk                                           Lopienka
846 Wowk                                           Smerek
847 Wowk                                           Strubowiska
848 Wowkanycz                                      Krywe
849 Woznic***                                      Liszna
850 Woznica***                                     Zubracze
851 Wronowski                                      Zawoj
852 Zajczyk                                        Zawoj
853 Zankow                                         Buk
854 Zapotocki                                      Jaworzec
855 Zarzawicki                                     Cisna
856 Zatwarnicki                                    Lopienka
857 Zawidczak                                      Smerek
858 Zawily                                         Buk
859 Zawita                                         Buk
860 Zawytyk                                        Buk
861 Zawytyk                                        Lopienka
862 Zazwirskyj (7)                                 Wetlina
863 Zelinski                                       Jaworzec
864 Zelizniak                                      Buk
865 Ziatyk                                         Solinka
866 Ziatyk                                         Strubowiska
867 Ziatyk                                         Smerek
868 Zieciow                                        Buk
869 Zolnycz                                        Zubracze
870 Zubal                                          Jaworzec
871 Zubal                                          Krywe
872 Zubal                                          Przyslup
873 Zubal                                          Smerek
874 Zubal (2)                                      Wetlina
875 Zubar                                          Dolzyca
876 Zubowicz                                       Lopienka
877 Zuraw                                          Luh
878 Zurawski***                                    Liszna
879 Zyzda                                          Cisna

    * Jewish family
    ** Gypsy family
    ***  Polish family
    ***** Polish aristocratic owner of the village (1862-1943)